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everything. had brought very little with them and up were using what little they had to build shelters to house their families. i travel a lot to refugee displaced persons camps. people were in people were in very difficult .helter situations they were in places that have been thrown together quickly. bengi, c.a.r., i spoke to several people living in difficult conditions at the airport. as you may have seen, the idp site is right there on the edge of the airport. so we did not have to travel far to meet with them. while their homes were in a nearby neighborhood, they all sought protection at the idp camp because they were afraid if
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they went back to their homes they could be hurt in the crossfire, in the violence. in all my meetings, security was the number one topic of concern from cabinet ministers, to u.n. leaders, to refugees, they all spoke of the need to restore a sense of law and order in the country. this is the number one message or one to bring to you today. is that they were concerned about the violence. when i asked for fiji is why they had fled they all mentioned fear of attack and concern for their families -- whenn i asked refugees why they had fled. i cannot reiterate strongly enough the importance of u.s. government support to the african union stabilization in c.a.r. of security is essential to creating conditions that will one day permit these one million uprooted people to return home.
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meanwhile, the u.s. government is committed to working with the international community to provide assistance inside c.a.r. and in neighboring countries and structure are aid programs to enhance efforts to protect the displaced. during my visit to chad, i was struck by the hospitality of the people and their government. they had not only open the doors to 92,000 central african refugees but were also welcoming the return of an equal number of migrants who had been living in the central african republic but were no longer safe in the country. i know the same degree of hospitality has been extended by cameroon especially which now hosts the largest number of refugees from the central african republic at 184,000. the other point to make about chad is that they have for a decade hosted refuge from -- refugees from darfur. i was tremendously impressed by the commitment of relief workers who had great risk to themselves
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are struggling to gain access to vulnerable populations to deliver aid, including food, walter -- water and health care. they were simply trying to deliver health care. refugees wereing receiving only half of the recommended daily food rations because world food program researchers eyes -- resources are stretched thin. several impression personally and said they did not have enough food to feed their children. that does not usually happen when i travel to refugee camps. usually, and they reach the camp they are safe and cared for. thehis case, i talk to world food program about it and they said they knew the food was under the recommended levels, and they did not blame the united states. the said united states have been generous with that other countries had not come through with their shares. in c.a.r. conditions in the camp at the airport were deplorable
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in terms of overcrowding. shelter was poor. partnership with local authorities are doing their best. it is clear minute the nearly $67 million the u.s. government have provided so far this year is money well invested. our work is certainly not over. since my return, the office of the high commissioner for refugees found it necessary to take a step of evacuating the last muslim population and taking them to chad, helping them to become refugees. we are not normally in the business of turning people into refugees. we normally charge a prevent the situation from occurring. others have been evacuated to safer spots inside c.a.r. these are extraordinary steps and they were not taken lightly. massacre,e to avoid a
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frankly. very much as a last resort. united nationse released its regional response 74an which calls for $2 million to address the crisis. we will provide additional funding in the new future. thanks to congress, we have appropriations to do more this year, but as you know, we are contending with too many humanitarian emergencies. unrest in the central african republic is happening at the same time as south sudan. secretary carry is in meetings today about sudan and syria. while sending will keep people alive, let me remind you -- while funding will keep people alive, let me remind you -- they wanted security and conditions that would permit them to return home, rebuild their lives, rebuild their homes, and go back to work in their places of business. this should be our highest
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priority as well. representative smith, ranking member bass, i thianank you for your support. i'm happy to answer your questions. christ thank you so very much, ms. richard -- thank you so very much. with regards to peacekeeping, when can we expect peacekeepers to be on the ground displacing those who are being augmented out because of those conflicts vested all know, and interests that have compromised the mission? are we talking the fall? is there any way to accelerate that process because, delay has denial fordelay is those being hurt or killed. let me ask you as well, maybe this would be to you, ms. richard, my understanding is that our humanitarian systems 67 million. $
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faith-based organizations only getting 7.5 million given the role they are playing in c.a.r. concerned you are sheltering 35,000 people and how much assistance only given to those ngo's or faith-based entities that could have high impact because they know and are understood and respected by the people they deal with. it seems that ratio is very much skewed towards not helping faith-based entities. if you could give insight into that. caspar -- makes the point in his testimony that combatants, politicians, and diplomats were all giving him the same excuses and reasons for the crisis in the country, lack
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of leadership, and exclusion of citizens. but he also makes the point thought this was very interesting, that one of the key drivers of violence. if the diamonds in poaching if you can speak to that issue and that there is a need for u.s. diplomatic engagement that looks at that aspect of it. those nefarious enterprises. ? let me also ask you as well, madeleine rose in her testimony pointed out if we fail to address c.a.r.'s crisis quickly, mercycorps is concerned the situation could metastasize into a new decades-long conflict transparent --transcending the quarter to south sudan. makes the point, that even with the eu reinforcements, the challenge of the peacekeepers
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outstrips capacity. is this design potentially to fail? i am not assuming any old will but is- ill will here, it being driven by insufficient resources? you mention those countries have not come through with their commitments. how much of an unmet need do we have? what kind of forces needed ideally to really end this violence? and what is conflict -- and is what is configured enough? is the money enough? how much are we giving to peacekeeping? when you say other countries are not coming through, if there could be a listing of those countries, commitments made, and there aremet, a large number of countries that could do a heck of a lot more, i would think, that are not doing it. finally, and i will have other questions, but i -- if you
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could start with those and i will get back to you. >> thank you, mr. chairman. u.n. peacekeeping force we anticipate their arrival in mid-september. however, i want to note that the u.n. has already had senior officials on the ground to do the planning and coordinating with the african union and french forces. and european union troops are beginning to arrive. they've started to train 480 police and gendarme from central african republic. are having the assistant secretary greenfield meet with the african union to discuss the deployment of additional african troops from ruwanda. we are positioned to move those troops weekly. these troops to replace the chadeans.
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>> how many are we talking about? what would be the force that would make the difference, and are we getting close to that or at that number? >> mr. chairman, i honestly don't know what the force needed it. we will be going from 7000 to additionalwith these troops, assuming the african union approves both the ruwandan and baroody contributions -- b urundi contributions. it will go from 100 to 500 pre sent. that will bring us close to 9000. >> do military planners at the pentagon and at the u.n. say that is a sufficient force, with a robust mandate to bring some p eace to these people who are suffering? >> let me answer your question different way, mr. chairman. in terms of displaced people in
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bengi, we've seen the number declined from 500,000 to 200,000 which is not to suggest that the situation is not atrocious, and the removal of the muslims and the flight of the muslims contributes to those numbers. so i do not want to be misleading, but the fact that the number of internally displaced people in bengi is declining, i think, shows that the french forces are having some impact. as we get these police and john trained, we are hopeful those numbers will be sufficient to restore security. we will have to look at this a regular basis and see what progress is being made, but to date, the progress is not adequate. we acknowledge that. eacekeeping more broadly, our missions in the u.n. missions and mali and sudan
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are both under subscribed. we are in conversations with partners about plusing up those missions as well as contribute to the missions and central african republic. but it has been a difficult process to identify capable peacekeepers. finally, you spoke about diamonds and poaching. central african diamond exports are currently suspended under but we arey process, hopeful that as the government can restore authority in combination with peacekeepers, that legal diamond exports can once again start. and this would provide the government with revenues needed to pay salaries and provide basic services. because of the, conflict it is difficult to know how much poaching is taking place. but it is clearly a problem in central africa is one of the
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countries that still has a significant population of elephants to poach. thank you. >> on the question of the fund to thetribution, it is u.s. is providing 7.5 million dollars in funding to some court conflict mitigation, reconciliation and peace building, including interreligious peace building efforts. i would expect that these efforts would not require as much funding as the type of lar ge scale humanitarian operations that are being carried out for sony people in the central african republic and in the region, all of the neighboring countries are affected. in addition, some of the nongovernmental organizations that are responding to the humanitarian work are indeed faith-based groups, and that includes catholic relief
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services speaking today. it gets funding from the us aid's office of foreign disaster assistance. they are on the list of one of the groups that is providing logistical support and relief in the region. and then in in addition, we have several high-level delegations going, and one of those was interfaith group from the u.s. that is additional costs that are not reflected in the $7.5 million. i think we are doing a lot. and i think that some of it is reflective in the funding and diplomaticis perhaps efforts that are within state department's base budget. we have the $100 million to support current peacekeeping. we will support the u.n.'s peacekeepers as we do thanks to congressional appropriations. 67 million in humanitarian assistance working with
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nongovernmental organizations that are across the country, and i think this network of nongovernmental organizations that are our normal partners but that are present in really sort of far-flung locations, hard-to-reach places across central african republic, is very important for us. working in neighboring countries, the un is moving people away from threats. the high-level visits. samantha power going twice and other groups. our diplomats have participated in all the princes on the central african republic that have taken place in new york and brussels in africa. we have stu farmington named as gton named as a representative. we are working at restoring the diplomatic presence in bengi. this is also going on at the early april visits. we have this money for peace building. >> could you provided a list of
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groups that are getting the money, the humanitarian assistance, and what might be anticipated going forward, particularly as it relates to faith-based? again, i was moved and the subcommittee was that vicious -- the bishop was doing was so much on an absolute shoestring. ad he was not going to let single person going -- to go unhelped, even if he did not have the money. it seems to me that we seem to be -- need to be backstopping people on the ground and have the credibility and have a record, as he and so many others do. i just hope we are not bypassing them unwittingly. force,could provide the that would be very. helpful. >> absolutely on the issue of other countries not providing funding, world resources are stretched thin, not just in the central african republic but in the entire region. it is a very difficult situation, and they are doing so much good work there and also in
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the middle east with the syrian crisis, too. programith world food collects. one of the issues is that the european union's humanitarian -- had a cash flow problem. they will have funding later this year. but you cannot go back in time and take that funding to feed people. so this is an example where a cash flow problem, which is not unheard of in washington sometimes, is actually having real damage on the ground. so t hat's a shame. and then, the other thing that we would like to do is bring new donors to the table. we have succeeded in some crisis, in the syria but we need more countries to step forward and take up the amount -- take up the cause and provide funding so that the u.s. share stays at an appropriate level. a healthy level, thanks to you
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all, but also that it be multilateral undertaking. finally, you had asked about restoring law and order. i really think in talking to experts that it is not just a matter peacekeepers. it is also a matter of the police, the judicial system, the prisons. this is not my area that this is what i heard from people there. , linda thomas greenfield and i met with our allterpart, and we are working to try to figure out what particular role can the u.s. play in addition to what other countries are doing to help ordinary citizens enjoy the basic public safety that they used to enjoy in bengi and other cities and towns. ambassador,g, mr. you said pre-genocidal state that your last appearance here. is genocidal now? airman, we really have
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not considered the question whether it is genocidal or not. horrible atrocities are taking place and we know that at least 2000 people have died. i do not think it matters what word we use. but the situation is horrible, and we're doing everything we can to reverse it. >> i appreciate that. i do think it matters but i respect the difference. ms. bass? ok. >> i mean, i can ask. >> they have not called it yet. >> i know that there is going to be a call for vote soon. so we know we will be interrupted but anyway, i will get started. i'm real concerned about, as i mentioned in my opening comments, about the displacement of the muslim population and essentially this stage that that sets especially for extremists, kind of enter that population.
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i believe ambassador jackson you were talking about the movement of the population toward the north? so i'm wondering if, i mean, i sure those concerns but i wonder if there is any evidence of that becoming problematic in terms of outside forces trying to take advantage revengeact that, the killings that happened. -- that have happened. >> congresswoman, we've certainly been looking at the question of outside forces coming in just as the lords resistance army has come in. to date, we have not seen that happening, but this separation of religious communities and de facto rotation of the country into christian and muslim areas is very troubling. and i believe the sooner we can restore basic securities so that people feel safer turning to their homes, the sooner we will
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be able to address this problem and avoid long-term partition and consequences that would come from the. of the thingsne about rwanda that was so hard to imagine, but i know it is one of the reasons why the country has been successful in its development since the genocide, but their whole reconciliation process, the fact that people really live down the street and their neighbors are folks that might have slaughtered in numbers of their family. i'm just wondering. i was just there for just such a brief time, but if the rwandans are involved in terms of helping the c.a.r. leadership toward the future of how to have a reconciliation process. >> i do not know if there have been formal discussions, but one of the reasons we have been so leased to have for wanda and burundi-- rwanda and
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contribute peacekeepers is because of their own history and we believe the troops can talk with people, engage with people, theencourage them to avoid conflict that we are seeing. burundi, and go to certainly had some concerns about what we saw there and what looms there in terms of the election next year. you mentioned the food supplies being the low what is needed, and i believe, investor richard, you said the u.s. had been generous but other countries have been lacking. i believe the chairman asked the same question in terms of which countries and dollar amount, and whether you can answer it or not, is that pretty much what you're asking? i would like to know that information, as well, because i am wondering if there are ways that we can step up pressure on those other countries so that they do carry their fair share. can work with usaid
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to get you the breakdown of who is contributing to the world food program, specifically in the central african republic and the region. but i want to repeat the one missing partner who's normally there with us are the european s. it is an unusual thing that they are having cash flow problems. normally the u.s. and europe together lead the world and humanitarian response. and other countries that step forward, including the europeans and the european union, are the canadians, australian, new zealand, japan, korea more and more, turkey stepping forward to play a larger role as a donor internationally. see gulfwith syria we states stepping forward but we would like to see more countries who have not been traditional donors join us, especially in a year like this one we have three
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of what the united nations called level three emergencies. syria, south sudan and the central african republic. our country is doing so much. i am proud when they meet with my counterparts from other countries that i can speak up about how much americans are doing. but i also think this system only works when other countries joining us -- join us in these enterprises. >> france is certainly playing a leading role. what are they doing in terms of pushing other eu countries? >> france is playing a leading thisin situation, particular country and also in terms of peacekeeping piece of it, but they are not leaders necessarily on the humanitarian funding piece. they do getrussels,
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credit for contribute to the overall european contributions. department for international development in london is a leading donor as well within your. the -- within europe. the uk is a top donor. >> i am wondering about the diaspora that is here and if you feel that there might be a role the diaspora that's here can pla y. there is a young man and the audience who often comes to the hearings. who's from the central african republic. and has an ngo. i often work in the breakfasts and other programs that we do on andhill with the diaspora, i'm wondering if you have any thoughts about how the diaspora here might be helpful there. >> it's a great question. i have not met with members of the diaspora from central african republic. , andt with diasporas
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recently with eritrean americans. resettlee program to refugees in the united states and regular meeting with somalis and more iraqis. it would not come as a surprise that we love working with diasporas, and figuring out ways to bring their talents, connections, abilities to message, especially in the case here of messages of peace, reconciliation, stability. i think that is the key thing they could play. >> maybe you just described a is toe can play, which facilitate the introduction for you. i hear all the time of people wanting to play very specific roles exactly like that but also in development. so i'll have another group of diaspora for you to meet with. >> happy to. you, mr. chairman.
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i guess this question is for you mr. jackson or for you, ms. richard, either one. the chad soldiers that came in and killed and injured so many, any idea who they are? any accountability there? wedon'tessman weber, really know who they are but we will be looking at the units in terms of vetting for future training. to look very very carefully at the participation deans based on their conduct. >> i think long-term and think we need to send the signal of that will be not tolerated and somehow there has to be accountability and the perpetrators brought to justice so there is no reoccurring incidents of that nature. any way to put pressure on the government to do that to aid in
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that? >> i understand that the chadean government is doing an investigation. we will look to ensure that they are held to account for their actions. >> i guess unlike the other mall shootings, there are no videos, absolutely no evidence to this. >> i am not aware of any video. the only thing i am aware of our testimonies by some of the victims. >> was one of our agencies coordinates with the chadean government to say you have to do more to bring the perpetrators to justice? >> the department of state does and specifically our ambassador at large for war crimes issues. he has been in the region. >> ok. you know, i was doing research on that event, and even al jazeera, the news organization,
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quoted, said thiat s was an underreported occurrence. give news agencies did not it the same coverage. i think it is imperative for us to keep the pressure on so that those kinds of people know we won't allow this going forward. i think -- yes, ma'am. >> and they've been underreported in the united states. there was a lot of coverage in the region. the reason i know that is because it was still unfolding during our visit. when i was in chad, they decided to bring their peacekeepers homee. at the same time there was a u.n. report on the incident that came out. so there has been a lot of attention. and you know, it's -- you know, these situations are complicated because you don't want peacekeepers abusing people in any way shape or form. they are there to protect people. at the same time, we had chad
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doing so much to try to restore stability overall. and we needed more peacekeepers, not less. you are absolutely right that we cannot support, support sending people to a country where they abuse the local people. that is not the purpose at all. so we have to be vigilant in keeping that from happening in the first place and holding people accountable when it does happen. but i do think there is attention being paid to it. i'm sorry we do not have specific answers for you today, and i think we have to stay on top of this. >> thank you. i remember our colleague over ire, ranking member bass, think she said religious differences are not the origin of the conflict. wouuld you elaborate on what you think is the origin of the conflict? 0-- would you elaborate? >> congressman, this is a country that has had a long tradition of conflict. you'll remember that the emperor was famous for his cannibalism. his is a country that has had
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andlicts between grazers agriculturalists. we have seen coup and fter coup. this is the third time we have evacuated or embassy because of unrest in the central african republic. there is a long and sad history here. i hope this time we can do better to get it right so we do not have another repetition of the unrest. >> some of my research said former president or prime minister bankrupted the country and had a lot of corruption. they basically were gone. whatever happened to him? was there an attempt to hold them accountable? >> we've actually spoken with president, the former president and encouraged him to issue public statements. calling for calm. we are looking at his role in the current violence.
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and again, as my colleague said, we want to hold those accountable for the violence responsible. >> i think y'all said earlier, and we are running out of time, they'll call votes. um, you are expecting more peacekeeping forces in mid-september. 480 gendarmes? >> they are central african to are undergoing training at present. i would expect that they would be active long before september. >> what does that make the total? 7000 to 8000? >> we are at approximately 7000. we're looking at adding a battalion of her wand and -- r wandans. we're looking at adding 400 peacekeepers from burundi. that would bring the total to 8200. troops fromopean
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various countries would be 8700 and total prior to september when the peacekeeping operation would come into effect. think it is, i important to note that while the u.n. peacekeepers are not yet in place, some of the troops that are there will transition to the u.n. force. but the u.n. political mission is in place and the deputy is our former ambassador to the central african republic. >> i will go back. >> -- i will yield back. >> get your pencils out, please. this will be a matter of record. first of all, why has not the international court interceded in here and going after these murderers, number one? number two, you said the troops troops will get there in september of this year. why so long?
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am not saying so long in pejorative sense because perhaps he can describe the process you have to go through. i do not understand the process. if anything takes more than five minutes for me, it is too long. how many troops will be there? when did this, when do these murderers -- did these murders start to show up on state's radar and the u.n. as well? that goes into my question of why is it taking so long? are the muslim and christian world leaders, the world leaders of the muslims and christians, are they standing up and saying to their religious followers, knock this off? do they have any role in visiting or representatives visiting over there, telling the
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religious followers that this would not be tolerated from their religious standpoint? in the drc, and has been embroiled in violence. over 5.4 million people have been killed. that's something that just does not take place over a year. it has taken place over years. and my question is why not long before this? i yield back. >> so i'll try to respond very quickly. we have become very aware of the murders since november and december. that is when the bulk of the violence taken place. in terms of the movement of the u.n. peacekeepers, the recruitment is what takes so long. one of the reasons the state department and the u.s. arrivalnt supported the
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place theg in african union force was precisely because they could deploy faster than the u.n. and since we are seeing a sic timetable for deployment, i think our conclusion that we needed to get the african troops in place was the right one. but it is very important to make this transition to a force that will have roughly 8000 troops almost to almost -- to 12,000 in september, assuming we can find additional peacekeepers. and the religious leaders from various countries, including the holy see are taking an active role. foreign ministers of turkey and inny were -- and guinea were central african republic this week talking with religious leaders. the organization of islamic conference special envoy, the
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former foreign minister of senegal, was there with them. we believe the religious leaders are working well with their counterparts in central african republic in doing what they can to appease the situation. >> don't you think it would be beneficial if the religious leaders came out on an international level and made these statements? think it would be useful. just as we broadcast president obama's message to central africans in december, i think having messages from world religious leaders could be useful. it is something we have been discussing as we bring religious leaders to visit central african republic. >> thank you. >> we're out of time. the role if any has atrocities prevention board played? again, you have been raising this, you know, have they been awol? or have they been very much a
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part of the -- trying to prevent and resolve this huge catastrophe? >> the atrocities prevention board has met. the most recent meeting was looking at nigeria and burundi. but there have been regular meetings and we have been working hand-in-hand to make -- >> met on c.a.r.? >> i have not seen the agenda for all of the meetings. but i believe, i can get back to you. >> we certainly have not heard or anycomes recommendations from them. i am wondering what role they have played because it was set up with great fanfare and it certainly has a great deal of promise. is that promise being met? >> mr. chairman, my colleague advised us that has been at least one apb meeting on central african republic. >> do you know what the recommendations were? >> i do not but i will get back to. >> it would seem that people
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like yourself should at least know what this group is recommending. thank you. recess. in i have a number of other questions, but the book concludes that. oteef recess -- but the v precludes that. thank you so very much. [captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2014] >> i want to apologize to all of our witnesses for that delay. we did have a series of votes. there was no immediate cut that any shorter. i would like to begin with our second panel. thescott campbell who sis catholic relief services regional director for central africa. di,coordinates in burun central africa, and congo.
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and rwanda. crs, he hasg coordinated food aid during the close of a crisis, overseeing the emergency response to the directed crs'sd response to the 2010 earthquake in haiti. he served as a country are presented to angola, haiti and the philippines. i myself along with a few other members were there and applaud the work that was done during that tsunami in 2004 by crs. it is great to know that you were there making sure that happen because otherwise it would have been far worse than it actually was. i would like introduce ms. madeleine rose is an advocacy aidsor for mercycoprrps an agency. mercycorps
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portfolios on sub-saharan youth programs, counterterrorism, and humanitarian access, countering violent extremism and atrocity prevention. she has also worked for the committee on national legislation in congress at the united nations and with community based organizations in south africa and for netapp. we will then hear from mr. caspar -- i hope i am pronouncing that correctly. who is the uganda-based field researcher for the enough project. we had john pendergrass here many times. work focuses on the lords resistance army and includes on the ground research and remote da, south sudan,
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and the central african republic that have been most affected by the lra crisis. his research aims to identify recommendations and solutions to the lra conflict. prior to joining the project, he worked for the northern uganda peace initiative and u.n. environmental program. the new -- we will then hear from the honorable robin renée sanders who is the ceo of feeds advocacy initiative. fe3ds -- shoulde organizations, focus on food security, education, the environment, and energy, self-help programs particularly for small and medium enterprises. prior to this, she served as the u.s. ambassador to nigeria and republic of congo, and was the u.s. permanent representative. she served twice as africa director of the national security council at the white
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house. we have a very distinguished panel of knowledgeable experts. and i would like to now yield to mr. campbell to begin the testimony. >> thank you, chairman smith. this opportunity to testify on behalf of catholic relief services. we're very grateful to you and your leadership in the interests in the future of central african republic and its people. campbell, the regional director for catholic relief services covering central africa region. that's seven countries, the two congos, chad, and central african republic. crs is present in 100 countries around the world. and providing humanitarian assistance and development programming. we've been in c.a.r. since 1999 doing programming. worked very closely with our church partners in the
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country. our work is mostly funded by the u.s. government, crs private funds and other sister agencies. i was recently in c.a.r. for a t hree week period just before christmas and again for three weeks in march. rose, i met her there during the second visit. i would like to share with you a few ideas about what has transpired there in the country and how we are prioritizing our work. is presentl, crs throughout the whole breadth of the country, from the southeast covering -- in the lra affected areas. and we have a very important u.s. aid funded program there working with communities affected by the lord's resistance army. we are present in the capital with our partners. in the south in mumbai province
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as well as in the northwest. and during my most recent trip i was in -- and saw the refugees as you explained earlier. i wasring that visit, involved with the distribution of nonfood items to communities that just a few weeks prior had been attacked i rebels. -- by rebels. that whole area had been completely pillaged or burn down. -- or burned down. and almost all the houses, people had very little left, and of course, as you are well aware, people had very little to begin with even before the crisis. the situation is truly desperate for tens of thousands of people. crs is also disturbing and will 7500 households.
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we have done that already. and we will do the same in the coming months as well as in the south. in those same areas, we have a plan to provide shelter kits for households that have been destroyed during the same month in may. the kits include wood for windows and doors and tarps for roofs. the pillaging and destruction has rendered much of the country extremely food insecure. this is the second consecutive hunting season that has hampered -- that has been hampered by the crisis. farm animals or nonexistent. with the planting season upon us, crs is disturbing seeds and
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farming tools for 10,000 households to respond to the food security situation. additionally, other economic activities have been disrupted, making life even more difficult. goodsg and importation of have been hindered because muslim traders have fled or truckers fear to enter the country because of looting. areas, is in certain saw heaps of cotton that had not been sold. this is cotton that have been harvested from last year. so the much-needed income has not been flowing because of the crisis. and generally more than half the country will need some sort of humanitarian assistance as a result. dyer as the situation is, much what i haveuch of
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been describing is the exterior, what we see on the outside. a more compelling story, however, is what is happening inside people's hearts and minds because of the problem. s critically important for us to understand that this is not a religious war. no head of any faith group has led the fight against another faith group. leaders, including the mayor and his deputies in the city. in her they did not want to see their muslim neighbors leave the country. womenke to the youth and from the refugee camp which means liberty school when it was very much like a prison. they also expressed the desire to stay. so there is a willingness among significant portions of the population to return to the pre-crisis reality where people
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lived and worked together harmoniously and in peace. crs has been working directly with the interreligious platform, led by the catholic archbishop of bengi, the president of the c.a.r. islamic community, and the leader of the evangelical alliance. together faith leaders in bengi. in their respective communities to participate in workshops on social cohesion and reconciliation. includedalso since parliamentarians and other community leaders. with theosely working minister of communications and reconciliation of the new interim government. in fact, we will be sending her to rwanda to see how the process worked in that country. in fact, crs was part of that process over the past 20 years. staff isf our rwandan
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now working in c.a.r. to share the work he has done and learned in rwanda there in c.a.r. one of the leaders expressed how before the workshop he had every intention of buying a gun and shooting at least one person from the other faith community. the workshop he explained, i do not have those feelings anymore. i am ready for reconciliation. so the hate, fear and vengeance pent up as individuals in that country, people need and feel release, tofor
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prepare themselves for reconciliation with the others in the community. the workshops have also included muslim faith leaders and some of the most difficult neighborhoods in bengi, where much of the fighting is evident. they were considered the hardliners. result ofded and as a the time, decided not to leave the country as planned. this is just some weeks ago. theiven the opportunity, space, and the support, people in the country want to rebuild the social fabric of the society. of muslimsloads leaving the country during my december-january visit. office shares a wall with the embassy of the democratic republic of congo and across the street is the ambassador to cameroon. his his residence . they were leaving every single day.
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so we have seen directly people pouring out of the country. t step, is the frsiirs preparing their hearts and minds of leaders and communities for peace and reconciliation and then they can enter into a process, of dialogue across communities. why this is important is because it has an immediate effect to release people from those burdens. but it also has the longer-term effect of social cohesion, to heal the sounds caused by the conflict-- heal the wounds caused by the conflict which is the most effective bulwark against manipulation of the most extremist entities intent on serving their own aims in the future. it really works against the radicalizations that could also be happening as these different communities move across borders.
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more funding is required to cascade that through the country. this is not something that can only be pinpointed in certain areas. it should be cascaded throughout the country. so i see that there is real hope for c.a.r. to build back communities as before, to be productive and harmonized. with this in mind, crs and the usccb make the following recommendations to the u.s. government. first, adequately fund and support you in peacekeeping efforts to ensure that relief and recovery activities are tenable. security is absolutely paramount. we need the right conditions in order to operate effectively. second, provide ongoing leadership and robust funding for humanitarian efforts in the c.a.r. the u.s. government should also help galvanize other donors to fulfill their pledges for
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humanitarian assistance in the country. all efforts must support the displaced and those who are hosting them to their immediate needs so that their immediate needs are met. as well as their return when conditions allow so that they can rebuild their livelihoods and plant their farms and support their families. voluntary return of refugees so the country can restore its rich cultural diversity. in fact, we have plans of doing some cross-border work as well, along the lines of what i described in this workshops. in fact, the workshops are actually paid by the u.s. government. the usaid people involved were extremely quick in releasing funding to enable us to do that in bengi. also integrate peace building
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and conflict resolution activities to rebuild social cohesion torn apart by the recent fighting and to defend future outbreaks of violence -- to prevent future outbreaks of violence. third, affirm a commitment to c.a.r. long-term. we commend the appointment of a special representative for c.a.r. and the u.s. government's plan to reopen the embassy. we further call upon the u.s. g addressop plans to longer-term needs over the next three to five years. this should prioritize reintegration of ex-militia into economic activities with a focus on youth. young men need to be in rolled in programs -- enrolled in programs that are practical and lead to job activities. prioritize long-term economic needs such as reconstruction of people's productive assets,
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keeping conflict sensitivity in mind. and recognize that elections should not be rushed. but the process fully incorporates all c.a.r. citizens, especially those muslims who have fled and wish to return. any election held should be well organized, free and fair, to end the cycle of illegitimate leaders who have been elected the needs of the central african people. so, mr. chairman, and ranking member bass, in the members of the subcommittee, thank you for your time. >> thank you very much for your solid recommendations. thank you for the good work that carl mccarrick and so many others have done. his most recent visit was galvanizing and underscored the point you made so strongly and that is that this is not about leaders of religious faiths conducting a jihad or any kind
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of, is not a religious war, but people are exporting extremism in order to kill and rape in maine. so tha=-- rape and maim. thank you for bringing it forward. i would like to recognize mr. rose. >> i would like to submit my full testimony for the record. >> sorted. -- so ordered. >> thank you for inviting me to the supply and behalf of mercycorps today. i am a policy advisor. mercyco haverp has worked since 2007 ranging from programs to youth empowerment economic development. if there's one message that i hope you take it in this testimony is that right now at the moment to secure long-term support for c.a.r.'s recovery. the window is closing and we have to make smart investments now.
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in march, i traveled to visit mercycorps programs. the most heart wrenching -- meeting was the one i expected to be easiest. simple.onse was he asked for a replacement pencils and papers which had been looted so that he could get back to work processing rape cases. pencils. all around us. across the street, i could see civilians preparing convoys to feelee to cameroon. his primary request was for pencils. i tell the story because it underscores the complexity of an overlooked element of the crisis. we're dealing with a multifaceted conflict and a humanitarian catastrophe and one of the poorest and most underdeveloped countries in the world. this means that every
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humanitarian activity will be more expensive, capacity building will fundamentally take longer, and political and economic recovery will require >> three weeks after this committee's hearing on the -- as other witnesses ofe testified, the cycle violence has spiraled so far out of control that it has deteriorated into a death note intoious cleansing -- cleansing.ious protracted displacement. andloping an ungoverned
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difficult to access territories. losing faith in the process of legitimate civilian rule. armed actor's targeting disaffected youth. factor support for de partition of the country that would divided between north and south along major natural resource belts. quicklyil to respond and correctly, it could metastasize into a new, decades long crisis. there are promising examples of community-based protection all across the country. has atarian development capacity to scale up operations of additional funding as made available. each of the priorities must be
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met and addressed simultaneously. security is to restore . we also would like to add to quick additions. the first, that congress consult regularly to ensure maximum u.s. .upport in the interim also to see what creative diplomatic tools we might be able to leverage that have not been pulled out of the toolbox just yet. secondly, we strongly oppose efforts to accelerate elections if those processes would exacerbate the risk of violence against civilians or undermine the legitimate prospects for peace. the deployment of military and police alone will not ensure peace.
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we must disarm the hearts and minds of central africans. for you to fulfill the humanitarian needs. the 2014 global humanitarian appeal is only 28% funded. unfortunately, the administrations budget request by 30%. by 28% and mra target interventions towards a protection and empowerment of women and girls. from january to march of this casesover 90% of the rape we have seen in our centers have been gang raped, committed by armed actors. this is a very significant increase in rape cases that we have ever seen.
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women have been marginalized across all aspects of the response. fifth, to date the u.s. has not committed funds or communicated its strategic intentions beyond december 20, 2014. efforts to reopen the u.s. embassy should be prioritized and expedited. congress could be helpful and accelerating the full engagement of international fight can -- financial institutions. the u.s. has stated that the prevention of mass keys constitutes a core moral and national security priorities. if the u.s. takes its commitments seriously, now is the moment to secure long-term support.
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simplyot be understood in the face of ongoing atrocities against civilians, it must be seen as investing in infrastructure to mitigate them long before they start. there is a long road ahead of recovery. thank you again for the opportunity to testify. i look forward to any questions. >> thank you very much for your testimony and your work. smith, members of the subcommittee, thank you for this opportunity to testify at this critical moment for the central african republic. as a field working researcher and have traveled over the country for the past two years. i've been looking at the drivers of the violence, and the
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prospects for sustainable peace. fighters and members of the government, aid workers and local journalists. i talked with diamond traders and people with firsthand knowledge. interviewed told me that what has been described as a religion goes much deeper. the crisis stems from a lack of leadership and an exclusion of the people from the decision-making process. social and economic grievances from decades of marginalization. central african fighters and their allies are part of a broader regional and international system in which outside countries and armed groups compete for state control
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, natural resources and general influence for resources and central africa. i also learned from interviews that diamonds and elephant ivory are funding the notorious militia from sudan, including the diamond rich areas. withfund their activities natural resources. interventions by other governments have influenced security dynamics in the country. the interest in chad and sudan has contributed to the conflict. mercenary fighters from each of these countries were part of the movement. the international community as a whole can take a few critical steps, but we must act as quickly as possible.
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we must support efforts to rebuild the state institutions that have come to a virtual standstill. we must investigate illicit diamond and ivory trading in the region and cut off funding sources for the armed groups. we must hold accountable those who commit atrocities and engage in economic criminal activity. u.s. diplomat engagement must recognize and address the interest of many actors who are involved in target illicit sources of financing. pursues.s. government diplomatic initiatives, we could present -- prevent atrocities in the long run. the appointment of ambassador
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semington will add to these efforts. as the u.s. charts the future of its engagement, i urged administration to not only attacked immediate needs, but also to pursue sustained thegement that addresses root source of the conflict. the country has experienced more than five military coups since independence in 1960. first, the u.s. should continue for the u.n.d surpr peacekeeping mission. the decentralized nature of the conflict, the lack of essential command from any of the armed groups all mean that the nation requires a bottom-up piece approach that addresses the armed groups through local
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negotiations and local dialogues and reconciliation processes. reconciliation should be broad-based and not only between religious groups. many people take up arms in pursuit of economic interests. we need to include civil society, women leaders, youth groups, a broad range of actors in the reconciliation process. united states and china should press the kimberly process to review missions to united arab torates, belgium and india stop smuggled diamonds. the u.s. should opt a regional approach to diplomatic engagement. there is an urgent need to
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recognize the interest of those who are drawn to the natural theurces and exploit fragile state institutions in their search for profit. the region is a largely lawless area were rebel groups operate relatively freely. the u.s. should determine a common policy for the region. america must continue to lead with and alongside international partners to stop violence in the countries. the most precious resources and people deserve nothing less. thank you. i'll be happy to take any questions. you for your testimony and recommendations. >> thank you, mr. chairman and ranking member. i want to thank you for including me in this panel to talk about this very difficult situation. what my group does is work with diaspora groups across the
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country, particularly with recommendations of -- and economic development. the latter time was when former ca our president first came to power. this is a time of great conflict in ca are. the questions the committee is seeking views on today is whether or not the central african republic is already in the throes of a pre-genocide atmosphere or already embroiled in genocide. andemarks will address this other elements a might be important to consider as we work therd helping the ca are -- to say something that is similar to what my colleagues the said on the panel about
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sheer devastation. i've been on the border area many times in my years in the past. remain refugees there from earlier central african republic conflicts. andmilitary instability unsecured environment has really been the focus of the car environment. it is caused internal issues that have never been fully resolved. all these issues keep the country environment unstable. this has allowed for the rise of what we see today. because of the continued instability and not being on the radar screen of the international community for more than a decade until the rise of in 2012, killing has now spawned into sectarian
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violence. we are hearing unconfirmed reports of what have been called reverse revenge killing, rep portably from armed muslim militia, running rates from enclaves in the north to nearby towns. they kill christians as well as doctors without frontiers. also preventing christians who want to live in peace with their muslim neighbors from doing so. therefore, we have, as you know, the following. revenge killing, which is turned into sectarian violence, a segregated country along christian/muslim lines. a large population of displaced persons that are afraid and ifgry. attacks on convoys accurate and either religious group, looming potential for
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famine and for the spread of disease as neither planting the harvesting season has oh will take lace in this environment. most importantly, impunity. these are the elements that could possibly lead down the road to something we have not seen before. a two-way genocide, as each group, muslims and christians, impose revenge killings on each other. if we allow this to happen, this will be a new challenge for the country and international community on top of the already critical humanitarian crisis and thousands of internally displaced persons already on -- on the umbrella of the airport. it is... if you're remotely comfortable. what can be suggested as the way forward? i recognize that the administration is working full-time on humanitarian crisis
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with internally displaced persons hurried as you are arty aware, manyready have stepped up to assist with humanitarian work. troops and the hundred 50 eu troops that have arrived should all be commended. we also need to double down on notring that the troops do serve one religious group over another. toecognize the time i needed get the full complement of 12,000 person u.n. peacekeeping mission in by september of 2014. every effort must be made to advances. of thelity may get ahead arrival.
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muslim militia is coming back in and attacking other villages. thus, as we balance this try fax of sectarian violence, revenge killings and famine, we may need to jump now to begin working with the transitional government , particularly in the enclaves. without a release valve for people to vent and articulate their fear and hatred, their desire to have revenge killing or atrocities done to them or this family and to adjust the overall environment of crimes against humanity, the impunity issue, we are likely at the beginning to see the current de into segregation of car something worse, such as the the likes ofide which we are never seen before. to helping people
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without addressing these two issues. generally, fragile stability has been restored. we are suggesting that these things happen concurrently now, because you have to have a way cap --elease valve to i'm not sure we can wait for that phase. the issues we have seen today. methodsnd towhat are the tradil conflict.address a lot of the diaspora groups that are here today have those good ideas. i wanted to add something else.
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i know this is not directly related to the question of the veryttee, but it is much and attend an issue. events like we see in car, although we might not think it can get worse, it can. it could spiral even more out of control, so quickly and so fast. i think we need to be mindful that there is the potential for untoward groups to come into car and take advantage of the unstable environment, and a segregated environment of muslims and christians, not only fueling more hatred and violence, but bringing with them or violent methods, such as terror tactics that we have not yet seen. aboutecifically thinking fundamentalist groups who could come in to provide al qaeda inspired tactics trading to help events because we have
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armed societies there. group to ensure that my working with other diaspora groups that are worried about to bring it to you today. i'm happy to address your questions. i would also like to submit my remarks with your permission to the committee. >> without objection. all the other. and so he made a part of the testimony as well. >> thank you, mr. chair. i appreciate your flexibility. i want to thank all of the panelists and appreciate your contributions. , ambassadoro ask sanders, if you could expand a little more. for example, you're talking about the reconciliation process beginning now.
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you mention several different countries. you also mentioned looking at the traditional processes that happened. thatou suggesting now reach out begin to the various countries, south africa, rwanda, sierra leone, and that teams are -- due north the -- of anyone else is attempting to do that? i know these are ideas that have germinated within the diaspora community. i did hear a colleague from sierra leone mention a workshop heard what we're are talking about is something a little bit different than that. andg into the enclave having discussions now in the segregated communities, i think is important that we look at traditional ways of arbitration, similar to what rwanda did. we need to find out what those traditional ways of arbitration car context.the
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sometimes those ways of arbitration are quite different from group to group. we need to start working with those groups in country as well as look outside. i have heard rwanda mentioned earlier, but other examples are out there, too. is a gooderra leone example that is similar to the theation in car given extent of the atrocities. will be leaving soon, but when you come back, i would like to continue conversations about this and maybe look into how we make that hungry trade i think everyone very much for your testimony. >> thank you, ms. bass. i am concerned that there seems urgency.ack of last july, many of us are
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raising these issues in earnest. when the bishop came and testified, he was fresh from coming from the united nations where you try talking to the permanent representatives there, especially security council members. urgency thate of not only were the killing fields horrific then, that they could quickly become another rwanda. he made a point very clear as he testified here. weeks, nownted for months, and now they seem to be sending up a fourth. i asked ambassador jackson earlier when the employment actually occurs. there are some augmentation of certain troops. about the not sure configuration of force. light sizeif it is
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and not being driven by how much money would be indicated to fund it. but what is necessary to do the job and do it as effectively as possible. the pentagon and others involved in this -- it would seem to me that we have liners to know what planners who know what it takes. don't have enough people, it doesn't happen. i mentioned earlier about the and horribleties rules of engagement. arenthetically, i had translator who met with the dutch peacekeeper testify here soon after all of the muslim men enica.laughtered in srebr
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they said the peacekeepers were handing over the men to slaughter. my point would be, are we moving with the urgency and sufficient testimony,in your the importance of a robust global humanitarian appeal is only 20% funded. three quarters not funded. you point out that the first priority for congress, and i thank you for underscoring that two members of congress, should be protecting appropriations funding for international disaster assistance and migration refugee assistance to ensure humanitarian needs are met through out 2014 and into 2015. then you point out ominously and disappointingly that the administration budget request to congress cuts the international forster assistance funds
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displaced persons by 28% from .014 levels the mra account by 33%. -- are other countries need to be stepping up to the plate as well with their obligations. so are on the inside for long, ambassador. how to get the administration itself to realize that this .risis is being underfunded we do take our cues from the administration. administration lays out a number that they think is the requisite amount for disaster assistance, for example, it does become a very important number that is taken seriously. it is not something we throw over the side. it takes a lot of data and you in the ngot
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can appreciate. it is a very serious shortfall on the part of the administration. finally, i do have a lot of the work ofut sambapanza, there is a heightened sense of expectation and hopeful estimate been diminished over the last several weeks. is that true? did she have the kind of backstopping that she needs from the international community as a head of state? finally, when it comes to children's issues, what are the kids doing? i appreciate mr. campbell that you talked about the one who decided to not go with the root of the gun because you had inspired him to see another path
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to take. there are a lot of young people, especially the under five generation and women who are not getting the kind of help that they need, particularly in this crisis situation. mentioned about famine and further spread of disease. the stocking of a whole slew of diseases that will break out if they have not already. we need to speak to that as well. you're all issues where it helps with as much specifics as possible so we can respond accordingly, particularly with the resources. madam ambassador, i understand you need to leave shortly.
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>> let me take the one issue first. we should have learned lessons from rwanda, which should be applied here. i think you're absolutely right that u.s. planners should be involved in this. they can be working with the u.n. department of peacekeeping to make sure we have it right this time in terms of not only the four sides, but the elements of the force, so you are not only addressing the peacekeeping inhanism, but maybe the theneed to maintain or keep security that you gain. every time a peacekeeper goes to different location, you have a fallback of that previously protected area that is no longer protected. i think we should've learned
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lessons from rwanda in terms of better managing the numbers and making sure we have the rightsizing done very it i think more dialogue with our planners and the department of peacekeeping operations at the u.n. i think really needs to be done so we can get those numbers right this time and get the mix right. may need more police than peacekeepers. definitely, you need those types of forces on the ground. in terms of the interim president, first of all, let me take my hat off to her, because she is definitely trying to manage a very difficult situation, and she needs all the support the international community can provide to her. i would add that some of the examples that have been provided by my colleagues here, including the idea of possibly having these peace commissions begin, we really need to start working with her and the transitional government in order to make that happen. , too.ave to have buy-in
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we can't do this things without the buy-in of the transitional government as well. into some ofy these ideas that have been presented so that we are working in lockstep and not counter step with each other. in terms of famine and disease, you heard earlier about the world food program stats on what they have in terms of -- you're able to provide to the idp's. you are also missing the point in terms of normally you have a planting and harvest season. that is not taken place because of the violence. the normal food stocks that are there are also diminished. in addition to having reduced amounts of relief food, you also have a reduced amount of normal stocks that are in the sierra. about potential for famine for both reasons. i think that is something that our administration needs to look
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down the line maybe three or four months, because we could be having the same conversation in august and september quite differently as we are facing famine on top of an already bad situation. >> the cut that has been proposed, would that be evastating? >> delegate activities ability to do their job, particularly from the manager inside her and we can't diminish any of these things. i mentioned earlier that we have a trifecta of issues that we have not had before. would also help address a potential famine issues down the line as well. >> i would just go down the line, if that is ok.
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have a position on the numbers, but we are happy with the mandate. it has a very strong well thought out mandate that is strategic about what it is supposed to achieve. it starts as a clear intent to protect civilians and transitions into the state building and institution building done the line. we are also really happy with us toge that requires devise a comprehensive project and strategy from the get go. it means that the u.n. is going to have to allocate resources to do an entire assessment throughout the country and plan a strategic response. below that, which is more important, we have to support these people. crisis inty of the car is different every day.
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there are new threats emerging in different parts of the country. the forecast should really be on -- i think that is the priority. on the funding question, i think it would be really great for the administration to feel some pressure from congress and for congress to request a conversation or briefing on their rationale behind those cuts. i think it would be a good initiative, but i want to underscore the fact that we have to keep fighting for crisis .esponse these crises are expensive. to get more and more expensive the longer they unravel, yet in our foreign assistance budget we have few mechanisms available
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for prevention. fund the newest tools developed in 2010. corps were able to respond very quickly. that is a great tool we think should be scaled up to $100 million. and rapid a ccf response. question of the transitional government, from my perception on the ground and from our staff perception, there still is optimism in the transitional government. that the prioritize is transitional government has a support package to pay salaries and restore basic state functions to begin to provide
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functions. we think that the imf really needs to get involved. we heard that they plan to send their assessment team in july, which we think is not fast enough. if congress. help accelerate that process for their scale of grant, it would be great. there have been a lot of to rwanda. of car what we are really seeing is it is actually unfolding in to something more like a drc. there is a massive, protracted displacement crisis. thet only responds to immediate needs without thinking of the underlying root causes that caused conflict in the to haveace, we're going to spend billions of dollars for 20 years and still have a
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crisis. that is why we are encouraging so that wenvestment don't see it fall into a similar crisis down the line. quickly, on reconciliation, there are some local initiatives going on already. a lot of local structures have been completely destroyed. invest inreal need to skills. there's also high-level engagement on political reconciliation so u.n. mediation support unit has been working on a plan. the primary task over the next three months is to find all the different influencers and the power players that start to rebuild that strategy. i think the big key for congress is to stay engaged with that process and see where there are gaps and a need for support. the local efforts and the
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are going efforts parallel to make sure you don't lose the connection between the grassroots and the elites in notety was for so long have been there. that is the current undercurrent of the crisis. >> thank you so much. i would say that the important point here is not just a matter of common troops we get. for me personally i'm not a military planner, so i can't talk much about that. what we have said on the plan -- on the panel is that the political process has stalled. the transitional government -- there is still hope. her ability to deliver israel limited because she has no army, no police. there are no judges. she does not have a state budget at the moment. her ability to respond to
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international and local expectations are extremely limited. those were the international community needs to come in and provide tools. you can provide her with advisers and support to bring out her political mandate. secondly, the reconciliation process needs to ,tart now, from the bottom up at the grassroots level. you have all these different armed groups that are operating without any central command in different parts of the country. you can't just call the usual and try to have a roundtable and solve it that way. you need to create a team of negotiators that can actually travel around the country and start to distill what the local issues are and broker some local understandings. once a dialogue starts, and i
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think that is what you also heard from under representatives who are here from the religious community last year, that it is possible to reconcile people. it is not happening at the moment. >> i would agree that the new interim president and the government is not given the support it needs to make an impact. they are losing credibility every minute of the day, in fact , i went to the mass where the president had attended as well. the bishop was very clear. the police and the army of the country itself has no arms. they're not part of this process. that is opposed to be part of rebuilding the government and the society are not even involved in the process. support, i think
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sa in three different ways, and it is support which as been slow arian situation. they can move forward and they lose their credibility with the population. regarding the workshops in reconciliation, in fact, we do work in those enclaves. that needs to be expanded. i agree with my colleagues, but it has to involve the people of the country itself and cascade down throughout the communities. it is not something that can be helicoptered in. our work is very much with those faith leaders, but also community leaders. they have to take hold of the process of reconciliation and social fabric. thank you.
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>> mr. meadows. >> thank you, mr. chairman, for continuing to bring this issue to the center and forefront of not only our minds, but too many of our colleagues. sadly, for many of the people we represent, if you were to ask on a map,nd the car they could not do it. and yet, the atrocities that are happening daily the things they would find appalling. isyour testimony today critical because it sheds some light on it. my concern is that at times we take this, and many of you live and breathe this every single day. you know the subtleties of it, you know what works and what doesn't work. testify, you come to he painted very broad brushed picture of what you would like like. the cia are look
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maybe 10 or 20 years from now, knowing full well that it will only happen in small incremental stages. we have a -- from what i'm hearing we have a critical timeline that must be addressed, both financially and with other resources immediately. ? i see all oft ech you are nodding yes. let me go further. i would assume that is a yes from all four of you. let me go further. i'm putting this in several different pockets. one of them is humanitarian, one is peacekeeping. the other is something that the ambassador alluded to. mr. campbell alluded to the policing side of that to even provide for a peaceful situation so that reconciliation and economic growth, a number of those things, can take place.
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how do we best assist recognizing the sovereign nation and the sovereignty of a foreign government to come in where it is not the united states trying stamp oneir particular that wey and a culture really don't want to american eyes. how do we get that message across and how do we on the policing side of it assist. if you look to train police and military, that is a very long process. it does not happen in a month or two. it almost requires intervention. what is the best solution to that so that the peacekeeping -- madam ambassador, as you haveoned, recognizing we limited resources, but how do we
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best soprano before what we do first, to start this process? ambassador, i know you need to leave, so i will start with you. >> inc. is a much. your points are extremely important. one of the things i think they can be done on the human side, because policing can be done with a u.n. mandate, as well, if they included in the mandate. training,meline about that is done the line for people u.n. mandate would not be unheard of. you could solidify whatever gains you do make in terms of security. that is one way to at least start, by including and bringing in police units as part of the you and peacekeeping effort. you can build on the police that are there to at least establish our begin to establish -- or begin to establish and maintain
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the areas that have been secured already, or that need to be re-secured and maintained those. r policetraining the ca down the line. >> politically, what would we have their? re? cracks about the constant security they will never be able to reach their goal. something we is would consider positively. it is something we need to think about and actually encourage the u.n. to take a look at, including inviting police units as part of the u.n. forced to be one of the areas you didn't mention that i think we haven't spent enough time on is the impunity issue. i say that because part of that
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reconciliation for people to be able to see that the international community is taking the question of impunity very seriously, that is with former seleca leaders. we haven't really addressed that as an international community as yet. >> with then enter marginal judicial system within the car, how functionally do you have that impunity where it gets dealt with? >> we do have the international criminal court. as one of the reasons it is there, when an internal system cannot deal with crimes against humanity itself. .hat is a mechanism as an area where we can at least begin the dialogue and have the icc look at this question of impunity, of some of the leaders that are out there that have caused the current violence. some have been responsible for
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the underlying causes that are today. i think it is something we can do. that is part of the mandate, is to look at issues where the country itself cannot manage its own judicial system in a way that you can adjust the question of impunity. >> can you comment on the atrocities prevention board? how is that played in our does it play in or what role does it car at thiss of the point. can anybody comment on that? >> we heard earlier today that as far as the administration understood, maybe there is one meeting. there may be others on the panel that might be better placed to answer that than i am. >> i see they are all looking at you, ms. rose. >> the ngo community that has
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collectively worked on atrocity prevention, we think it plays an important role. the statemments that department did not know about september,sis until i thought there was potential opportunity for congress to push back and asked how that could be the case. >> i kind of did ask. coup happened in march and we have interagency structures to raise red flags to the highest level, how is it possible that the state department was not looking at this intentionally in november and december. i think that is a follow-up opportunity. they were convening behind-the-scenes meetings.
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they did convene meetings. they had open sessions with ngo partners. we can express what we were seeing. that would not happen without the prevention board. clearly we were too late. our question is what happened in march. if car was strategically irrelevant until mass atrocities were occurring, how are we better elevating that framework -- how can we get ahead of >> how could we please better emphasis ahead of the curve rather than after the curve? >> yes.
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they're required to create an estimate on mass atrocity threats across the world. where car was on that list, how it moved, i think car would be a great case study for a congressman or agency to explore where the breakdowns are in that system. we do think there has been progress and because of the presidential study, because of the court u.s. commitment to prevent mass atrocities, the response is faster than it ever would've been. whether needs numeral progress moving forward, one would be unlocking the information sharing problem and these blockages to investing and more flexible and long-term funding across the board, can't solvethat you crises in 12 months.
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we let implementors do with the complexities of his problems. or, to codify our commitments in law to mass atrocity prevention. live beyond the obama administration unless congress codifies it into law. that would be great. down. me bring it if we were to only do two things in the next 90 days, what would it be? two things. andow we need humanitarian policing. if we can only do two things and say this is most critical time because we are underfunded and , i was at a dinner and i can tell you that whether it is ngos, state department or the u.n., a number of them, the focus for them was to places, south sudan and the car.
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they saying we have to act immediately. for every day that we don't act, there are lives that are being lost. how do we do this. if we were to say in the next 90 days you could do anything you wanted to do, what would it do in terms of -- how would you prioritize our involvement there you go mr. campbell, let's start with you. be first,y would because we would need that operating environment. >> if you had just one, what would it be? the security, meaning that the police, but because the situation is so volatile, until that is stabilized, nothing else can move. secondly, the humanitarian response. people are in such need. food security,
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before you get to the immediate response. that has to come -- because of how this has evolved, this is a particularlyaster, with food security. as i said earlier, this is two years of consecutive problems with funding and so forth. even in the lean periods before the crisis, it was very difficult. >> ms. rhodes? >> i would confer with the first can fish it -- we are trying to find replacement. also just explore across the interagency if there are ways for the united states to increase assistance in the immediate term. to pass a would be bill authorizing multiyear funding to car that
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transcends the regular appropriations calendar. not just financial assistance but a 45-year strategic response will that includes humanitarian -- >> ifnt, diplomatic you would, and not for open testimony, but if you would submit what the budget would look like, what the parameters, i don't need a cat like a .olls-royce version i won't mention of the vehicle, but we need something less than that. agree that those are critical issues. i would like to propose that we think a little bit outside of the box and not just think about more troops and more police. i firmly believe that with local reconciliation approach, we will be able to contain the violence. to stop ther method
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violence that has not been tried in the country. i firmly believe that what will make a huge difference on the ground once people start to talk together. theirt would be motivation to talk? nobodymotivation that has a really good situation. people are being displaced and attacked daily. my experience from talking to are seeking, people leadership and guidance. they're seeking someone who guides to put order in place. it is much more effective to stop local dialects. realistically speaking, i just don't see where the finance and the troops are coming from at this moment. i know we are pressing on time limits for everybody. you mentioned diamonds and if you're the other things and outside influences. what component or what percentage of this is a
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terrorist organized crime intervention within that, in terms of diamonds and other natural resources, whether it be hezbollah are any of the others. what kind of presence would you car?hem having in the >> is not something we have seen to date. what we're seeing is this alliance with key members. control of diamond areas to finance a rebel group heard most of those commodities went through sudan because of that strong relations with the sudanese government and members of the militia. i think that is where we have to look. these are more long-term issues that do not have an immediate effect. as why do not raise it is the most crucial point in madam ambassador? >> thank you.
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i have to echo police and security as number one. i am going to go back to the impunity issue because i think it is double-sided. one, because it shows if you to the justicep system, then you have a better chance of reconciliation happening on the ground. if people see that the leaders a and the former president and others have alluded to the company the a better, i think helps a reconciliation process on the ground. >> it has to be a motivation for them to talk. if they can operate without impunity. if you have the leadership operating without impunity, then what is the motivation in your life. even if he had more peace groups, i think it encourages people and they see that the leadership has also been brought
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to justice. i would encourage that we begin a dialogue with the icc and looking at the car and bringing some of the leadership to justice. lastly, and it was touched on briefly, is the complicity issued by various elements throughout the region. i do think that has historically you doroblem with car. have various complicity support coming from different countries whether it is on the economic resource side or on the political influence side. those issues have existed for more than a decade in terms of outsized complicity helping to destabilize car, and that has not changed. we need to bring our voice to some of those leaders around the region and address some of the complicity issues that we all know are there.
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>> mr. chairman, i appreciate your patience. a before we conclude, just couple of final questions, especially as it relates to the icc. the full foreign affairs committee passed a resolution we held a hearing and did an op-ed for the washington post. it was patterned after an ad hoc and the icc has not had -- conviction in over a decade. 18 investigations. nobody else, for some reason. they seem to have all kinds of internal constraints. a lot has to do it the way it was configured. that davidthings green said --

Key Capitol Hill Hearings
CSPAN May 3, 2014 4:00am-6:01am EDT

Speeches from policy makers and coverage from around the country.

TOPIC FREQUENCY U.n. 24, Rwanda 11, Crs 8, Sudan 5, South Sudan 5, Bengi 5, Mr. Campbell 4, Burundi 4, Syria 3, Eu 3, Cameroon 3, United Nations 3, Ms. Richard 3, Africa 2, South Africa 2, Ms. Bass 2, Smith 2, Jackson 2, France 2, Nigeria 2
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